When it comes to minerals for healthy aging, James Hyde, vice president, Balchem Human Nutrition & Pharma in Utah, said these research studies are of interest to suppliers and manufacturers:
Magnesium chelate is associated with better blood pressure control and decreased atherosclerosis in hypertension. (Cunha AR et al, J Hypertens 2017).
Resistance training followed by creatine supplementation improves muscle strength and lean tissue mass in healthy older adults. (Candow D et al, Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2015).
Adequate calcium levels are known to reduce the risk of fracture, osteoporosis and diabetes (Beto JA, Clin Nutr Res 2015).
Magnesium deficiency is a frequently occurring disorder that leads to loss of bone mass, abnormal bone growth and skeletal weakness. A recent study set out to understand more about whether deficiency affects the formation and/or activity of osteoclasts—which are instrumental in controlling the amount of bone tissue. The research indicated that magnesium deficiency resulted in increased numbers of osteoclast-like cells. (J Nutr Biochem; 2013 Aug; 24(8):1488-98 Belluci MM, et al.)
Supplementation with various calcium preparations is now the most common approach to increase calcium intake in individuals concerned with osteoporosis. However, it has been shown that the bioavailability of many commercial calcium preparations vary greatly. This study compared the bioavailability of calcium after supplementation with four preparations: Albion’s di-calcium malate, Dimacal, Albion’s calcium bisglycinate containing 18 percent calcium, calcium bisglycinate buffered containing 26 percent calcium, and industry standard calcium carbonate. Based on the results of this study, di-calcium malate seems to be the most bioavailable compared to the other supplements being investigated with a longer half life. The two calcium chelates were the next most bioavailable of the four followed by calcium carbonate. (Comparison of calcium absorption from various calcium-containing products in healthy human adults: A bioavailability study – Mukherjee R, McCorquodale M, Crowley D, Ashmead S, and Guthrie N. The FASEB Journal 10:A1063-A1064)
Manifestations of a magnesium-deficient state may include cardiac arrhythmias and low blood pressure.(DiSilvestro, R, Handbook of Minerals as Nutritional Supplements, 2004)
Recent studies have demonstrated that oral magnesium supplements decrease high blood pressure. Seven recent studies, involving 135 hypertensive subjects on anti-hypertensive medication continuously for at least six months, with no more than a two-week washout and with a mean starting systolic blood pressure (SBP) >155 mmHg, demonstrated a mean change of -18.7 mmHg [95 percent CI = -14.95 to -22.45] p<0.0001 – a highly significant effect. (Magnes Res; Rosanoff A, et al., Oct 16, 2013)
In a 15-year study involving 4,637 young adults, the relationship of magnesium intake to Metabolic Syndrome X was examined. The participants were Americans, 18-30 years old, free of diabetes and metabolic syndrome. During the course of 15 years of follow-up, there were 608 incidences of Metabolic Syndrome X. Magnesium intake was inversely associated with the incidences of metabolic syndrome. (Ka He, MD, ScD, et al. of Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine March 27, 2006)
A research study pointed out that magnesium deficiency has been implicated in diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiac arrythmias, acute myocardial infarction and atherosclerosis. The biological mechanisms that could explain the physiologic effects of magnesium in these disorders include: Magnesium deficiency causes dysregulation of the Na-Mg exchanger, resulting in higher intracellular sodium and higher blood pressure.
A relatively low magnesium level creates an intracellular imbalance between calcium and magnesium, which leads to increased vascular tone in arterial smooth muscle and increased blood pressure.
Magnesium deficiency causes insulin resistance, which causes hyperinsulinemia, leading to hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. (Fox C, Ramsoomair D, and Carter C; South Med J: 94(12):1195-1201, 2001)
Weight and Blood Sugar Management
There is a large body of research regarding magnesium, zinc, and chromium for blood sugar management.
Albion Laboratories offers highly bioavailable forms of several key minerals that are associated with aiding in blood sugar management¬—magnesium, zinc, and chromium. Specifically, the following forms:
• Magnesium Bisglycinate Chelate
• Magnesium Bisglycinate Chelate Buffered
• Zinc Bisglycinate Chelate
• Zinc Arginate Chelate
• Chromium Nicotinate Glycinate
Magnesium has a multitude of roles in the realm of carbohydrate metabolism, as well as its ability to help decrease serum lipids. A large percentage of the population is suffering from at least marginal magnesium status—more than any other mineral deficiency in the US.
According to Milagros Huerta, MD, magnesium deficiency in obese children is associated with the development of insulin resistance, a deficiency that they found to be the result of decreased dietary intake of magnesium. Huerta states that magnesium is associated with insulin resistance and increased risk for type-2 diabetes in adults. Magnesium is a very important cofactor for enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism.
Metabolic syndrome has led to an increase in type 2 diabetes, pre-diabetes, as well as hypertension and other cardiovascular problems. In a study that examined whether and to what extent magnesium intake is related to systemic inflammation and metabolic syndrome, the results suggest that magnesium intake is inversely associated with systemic inflammation and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older women. (Magnesium Intake, C-reactive Protein, And The Prevalence Of Metabolic Syndrome In Middle Aged And Older U.S. Women – Diabetes Care. 2005; 28(6):1438-44. Song Y, et al.)
Zinc has been shown to hold one of the keys to fighting insulin insensitivity. It has also been shown that the diabetic has a much more difficult time absorbing and utilizing zinc. Because of this, doses of zinc in a diabetic need to be higher at the start of any zinc supplementation program.