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Albion Minerals: 2016 Science of Ingredients

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Website: www.albionminerals.com

Magnesium—An Essential Mineral and Why Form Matters

For brand manufacturers and product formulators, minerals may sometimes take a back seat as other new and innovative ingredients take a spotlight in supplement, food and beverage markets. However, the human body cannot function properly without minerals.

The Critical Role of Magnesium

While all minerals are important, evidence continues to unfold regarding the critical role magnesium plays. Magnesium is a cofactor in more than 300 enzyme systems and regulates approximately 80 percent of biochemical reactions.1 Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral in the human body, involved in many critical functions, including:

• Normal bone growth
• Maintenance of heart rhythm and blood pressure
• Formation and contraction of muscle
• Energy production and formation of ATP
• Nerve conduction
• Maintenance of mood and cognitive function

A system of major importance that relies heavily on magnesium is that of cell proliferation. In this system, magnesium has been shown to have direct influence on cell cycling, protein synthesis, and growth factor response. Protein synthesis is highly dependent on intracellular magnesium concentrations. Increasing the magnesium content amplifies protein synthesis.2

Magnesium Deficiency and Its Impact

The daily recommended intake of magnesium for adults is 310 to 420 mg. It has been estimated that approximately 60 percent of individuals in the U.S. may not have adequate dietary intake.3 Although magnesium is ubiquitous in the diet, there is no major food that provides extremely high amounts, and only about 30-40 percent of dietary magnesium is actually absorbed (depending on intake).1

It has been suggested that the inadequate dietary intake of magnesium may be a risk factor or correlated to several chronic diseases including sudden cardiac death,4 Alzheimer’s disease,1 diabetes/metabolic syndrome,1 obesity3 and strokes,1 to name a few.

For these reasons, dietary supplementation of magnesium may be beneficial.

Which Form is Best?

It is important to look at the research and evidence regarding the bioavailability of magnesium. There are many different forms of the mineral.

Inorganic magnesium forms include:

• Oxides
• Sulfates
• Carbonates
• Chlorides

While organic forms include:

• Organic acid salts (citrates/malates)
• Complexes
• Chelates

So, which form is best? Organic mineral amino acid chelates (Figure 1) have been scientifically proven to be more easily absorbed into the human body.

At the 2016 Experimental Biology meetings research was presented that demonstrated that Albion Magnesium Bisglycinate was highly absorbed in vitro using a Caco-2 human intestinal cell model.5 In this study, it was found that Albion Magnesium Bisglyinate had greater absorption than magnesium oxide and magnesium citrate. Additional research suggests that Albion Magnesium Bisglycinate combined with magnesium oxide may have some benefits6 without compromising bioavailability.5

Magnesium has a reputation for causing gastrointestinal distress and laxation when take in high doses. Thus, it is important that a highly bioavailable source or magnesium be well tolerated. In research presented at 2016 Society of Toxicology meetings it was shown that in healthy adults Albion Magnesium Bisglycinate at dosages of 300, 450 and 600 mg of elemental magnesium there were no significant differences in tolerability and gastrointestinal distress as compared to a maltodextrin placebo.7 These findings corroborate earlier research in subjects with ileal resections.8

Albion Magnesium Bisglycinate Chelate has the dual advantage of being both highly bioavailable and highly tolerated. It provides an ideal solution to provide dietary supplementation to support adequate magnesium status.

Mineral Innovations

Albion Minerals has proven that its amino acid chelates are effective in more than 200 studies and 70 human trials. Albion has also been granted more than 100 patents in the field of mineral nutrition worldwide.


1 Volpe, SL. Adv. Nutr. 4:378S–383S, 2013.

2 Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76:3917-3921, 1979.

3 Nielson, FH. Nutr Rev 68:333-340, 2010.

4 Chiuve SE, et al. Am J Clin Nutr 93(2):253-260, 2011.

5 Hartle, J, et al. FASEB J 30(No. 1 Supplement):128.6, 2016, in press.

6 www.albionminerals.com/human-nutrition/magnesium-white-paper, Accessed April 8, 2016

7 Ashmead S, et al. The Toxicologist, Supplement to Toxicological Sciences, 150(1):Abstract 2457, 2016.

8 Schuette SA. J Perenteral Enteral Nutr. 18:430-435, 1994.